Pre-plan a time-efficient, safe response, minimizing responder’s engagement


  • Plan mobilization, communications, logistics and legal issues for specific scenarios. Understand possible help from outside the regional system.
  • Gather and share relevant information of local hostile scenarios, and its pre-planned response measures.
  • Package and preposition modules of resources, equipment and logistics for quick transport, and easy tracking. Plan its mobilization.
  • Focus efforts on passive prevention for safe access.
  • Identify who can perform them key specific roles.
  • Create networks of experts that exchange knowledge, experience and best practices.
  • Coordination between cross-border crews.

#communicationtools #accessibilitytools #specificSOP #recognizionofexpertise #minimizeexposition #equipmentnests

Possible Solutions

Name Provider

(company, project, organization)

Short description
TAFF (Development of operational strategies and guidance on Tackling consequences of extreme rainfalls and Flash Floods)


The consortium intends to provide a full process beginning with localized knowledge and ending with a comprehensive response approach that can be used to improve flash flood response in the EU. Specific products such as guidelines and tactical guidance documents will be created and tested in specifically developed trainings and exercises.


A FRAMEWORK FOR THE APPLICATION OF GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS TO THE PROBLEM OF PLANNING FOR CATASTROPHIC EVENTS BELARDO, S.; HARRALD, J. (1992); Ieee Transactions on Engineering Management, 39(4), 400–411 During the last 2 years the U.S. has endured extensive property damage and loss of life from the Hurricane Hugo and Loma Prieta natural disasters and expended billions of dollars in the aftermath of a major oil spill in Prince William Sound. Ineffective precrisis planning was, according to most observers, a primary factor contributing to the failure of these response efforts. The improvement of our capability to plan for and to manage the crisis response activities required when natural or technological disasters occur is a fundamental challenge to our technological society. The synergistic interaction of multidisciplined experts is essential to the creation of scenarios which specify a richness of detail and to the identification of critical decisions and problems which must be anticipated by the crisis manager. This paper discusses the application of decision analysis methods and decision support tools to the development of a scenario driven planning process. The methodology and structured group interactions on which this technology should be based have been demonstrated and are discussed in the context of planning for earthquakes and catastrophic oil spills. The improvement of the contingency planning process through the application of Group Decision Support Technology could provide a new foundation for the management of the response to catastrophic natural and technological events.
Full-scale regional exercises Klima, David A.; Seiler, Sarah H.; Peterson, Jeff B.; Christmas, Britton; Green, John M.; Fleming, Greg; Thomason, Michael H.; Sing, Ronald F. (2012); Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 73(3), 592–598 BACKGROUND: Man-made (9/11) and natural (Hurricane Katrina) disasters have enlightened the medical community regarding the importance of disaster preparedness. In response to Joint Commission requirements, medical centers should have established protocols in place to respond to such events. We examined a full-scale regional exercise (FSRE) to identify gaps in logistics and operations during a simulated mass casualty incident. METHODS: A multiagency, multijurisdictional, multidisciplinary exercise (FSRE) included 16 area hospitals and one American College of Surgeons-verified Level I trauma center (TC). The scenario simulated a train derailment and chemical spill 20 miles from the TC using 281 moulaged volunteers. Third-party contracted evaluators assessed each hospital in five areas: communications, command structure, decontamination, staffing, and patient tracking. Further analysis examined logistic and operational deficiencies. RESULTS: None of the 16 hospitals were compliant in all five areas. Mean hospital compliance was 1.9 (+/- 0.9 SD) areas. One hospital, unable to participate because of an air conditioner outage, was deemed 0% compliant. The most common deficiency was communications (15 of 16 hospitals [94%]; State Medical Asset Resource Tracking Tool system deficiencies, lack of working knowledge of Voice Interoperability Plan for Emergency Responders radio system) followed by deficient decontamination in 12 (75%). Other deficiencies included inadequate staffing based on predetermined protocols in 10 hospitals (63%), suboptimal command structure in 9 (56%), and patient tracking deficiencies in 5 (31%). An additional 11 operational and 5 logistic failures were identified. The TC showed an appropriate command structure but was deficient in four of five categories, with understaffing and a decontamination leak into the emergency department, which required diversion of 70 patients. CONCLUSION: Communication remains a significant gap in the mass casualty scenario 10 years after 9/11. Our findings demonstrate that tabletop exercises are inadequate to expose operational and logistic gaps in disaster response. FSREs should be routinely performed to adequately prepare for catastrophic events. (J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73: 592-598. Copyright (C) 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
Information and Expertise Sharing in Inter-Organizational Crisis Management Ley, Benedikt; Ludwig, Thomas; Pipek, Volkmar; Randall, Dave; Reuter, Christian; Wiedenhoefer, Torben (2014); Computer Supported Cooperative Work-The Journal of Collaborative    Computing, 23(4-6), 347–387 Emergency or crisis management, as is well-attested, is a complex management problem. A variety of agencies need to collaborate and coordinate in real-time and with an urgency that is not always present in other domains. It follows that accurate information of varying kinds (e.g. geographical and weather conditions; available skills and expertises; state-of-play; current dispositions and deployments) needs to be made available in a timely fashion to the organizations and individuals who need it. By definition, this information will come from a number of sources both within and across organizations. Large-scale events in particular necessitate collaboration with other organizations. Of course, plans and processes exist to deal with such events but the number of dynamically changing factors as well as the high number of heterogeneous organizations and the high degree of interdependency involved make it impossible to plan for all contingencies. A degree of ongoing improvisation, which typically occurs by means of a variety of information and expertise sharing practices, therefore becomes necessary. This, however, faces many challenges, such as different organizational cultures, distinct individual and coordinative work practices and discrete information systems. Our work entails an examination of the practices of information and expertise sharing, and the obstacles to it, in inter-organizational crisis management. We conceive of this as a design case study, such that we examine a problem area and its scope; conduct detailed enquiries into practice in that area, and provide design recommendations for implementation and evaluation. First, we will present the results of an empirical study of collaboration practices between organizations and public authorities with security responsibilities such as the police, fire departments, public administration and electricity network operators, mainly in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. Based on these results, we will describe a concept, which was designed, implemented and evaluated as a system prototype, in two iterations. While the first iteration focuses on situation assessment, the second iteration also includes inter-organizational collaboration functionalities. Based on the findings of our evaluations with practitioners, we will discuss how to support collaboration with a particular focus on information and expertise sharing.
MULTIPLE TYPES OF SENSOR DATA; CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES FOR AN OPERATIONAL PICTURE FOR RESPONSE TO CRISES WITH MASS INVOLVEMENT Rainer, Karin; Silvestru, Diana; Neubauer, Georg; Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Almer, Alexander; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J. (2017); Idimt-2017 – Digitalization in Management, Society and Economy, 46, 111–126 Taking into account the experience of the recent past and anticipating future developments, crises with mass involvement require the availability of holistic data sources. Such data have to be integrated into the crisis management procedures to gain the necessary, full-scale operational pictures for an efficient, timely, and sustainable response by the teams in the field and on strategic levels. Migration movements, but also challenges of planned or un-predicted mass gatherings and their potential escalation have been identified by experts and responsible organizations as scenarios in need for more detailed and stratified data than just quantitative data, counts and flow Multiple Types of Sensor Data; Challenges and Perspectives for an Operational Picture for Response to Crises with Mass Involvement analyses. Learning from past developments and practice examples it becomes clear, that additional, multiple types of sensor data can and should be taken into account and integrated. This is a growing requirement to complement, further diversify and structure the operational picture for the targeted and qualified crisis management delivered by response units and public bodies. In addition to this, the early preparation of further care and support of potential casualties or refuge seeking people can be facilitated by more detailed and enhanced sets of data. Thus, special needs, targeted assistance in emergencies, but also security related issues like the separation of rivaling groups can be facilitated. Due to the inclusion of multiple types of sensors like audio data, chemical sensing, digital meta-data or enhanced pattern detection and processing adding up to commonly used visual sources, the tackling of blind spots and weaknesses in current crisis management can be supported. Besides the inclusion of data and information extracted from multiple sensors, an optimized exchange of targeted information between stakeholders was identified as the second pillar for improving the operational picture.
GIS in Disasters and Emergency Management Zhou, Wan-li (2011); Second Etp/Iita Conference on Telecommunication and Information    (Tein 2011), Vol 1, 240–242 Rapid urbanization due to accelerated population growth can have a devastating side effect on our cities and environment when a disaster occurs and there is a lack of adequate disaster response planning. Disasters can be man-made or natural, including earthquakes, floods, fires, war, terrorism, etc. Our ability to react to these disasters, whether government or individual is not tested very often, and many times when it is, chaos usually reins for a short period until authorities can fully mobilize and take affirmative action. GIS is a tool that can help both in the planning phase to develop contingency scenarios and in the operational phase when teams are on the ground attending to the effects of a disaster. This paper describes the use of GIS in disaster planning.