Negotiate solutions with stakeholders for anticipated scenarios


  • Pre-plan based on predicted probable scenarios and negotiate accepted level of risk based on them.
  • Involve risk owners, control owner, technical experts and other stakeholders
  • Change focus towards prevention, self-protection and risk mitigation.
  • Exchange of experts in large events in other places when timely possible.
  • Build communities of practice of experts.

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Possible Solutions

Name Provider

(company, project, organization)

Short description
CATO project (CBRN crisis management: Architecture, Technologies and Operational Procedures)


Open Toolbox for dealing with CBRN crises due to terrorist attacks using non-conventional weapons or on facilities with CBRN material


Site management of health issues in the 2001 World Trade Center disaster Bradt, D. A. (2003) Academic Emergency Medicine, 10(6), 650–660 The terrorist destruction of the World Trade Center led to the greatest loss of life from a criminal incident in the history of the United States. There were 2,801 persons killed or missing at the disaster site, including 147 dead on two hijacked aircraft. Hundreds of buildings sustained direct damage or contamination. Forty different agencies responded with command and control exercised by an incident command system as well as an emergency operations center. Dozens of hazards complicated relief and recovery efforts. Five victims were rescued from the rubble. Up to 1,000 personnel worked daily at the World Trade Center disaster site. These workers collectively made an average of 270 daily presentations to health care providers in the first month post-disaster. Of presentations for clinical symptoms, leading clinical diagnoses were ocular injuries, headaches, and lung injuries. Mechanical injury accounted for 39% of clinical presentations and appeared preventable by personal protective equipment. Limitations emerged in the site application of emergency triage and clinical care. Notable assets in the site management of health issues include action plans from the incident command system, geographic information system products, wireless application technology, technical consensus among health and safety authorities, and workers’ respite care.
What Have We Learned since September 11, 2001? A Network Study of the Boston Marathon Bombings Response Hu, Qian; Knox, Claire Connolly; Kapucu, Naim (2014); Public Administration Review, 74(6), 698–712 In light of recent disasters, it is evident that more research is needed to understand how organizations can effectively coordinate disaster preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery efforts. This research assesses the effectiveness of interorganizational coordination and collaboration in response to the Boston Marathon bombings. After reviewing the major changes in federal emergency management policies and frameworks since September 11, 2001, this article applies a social network analysis to compare the disaster response networks embodied in formal disaster preparedness plans with the actual response networks. Data come from content analyses of the Boston Emergency Operations Plan, national and local newspaper articles, after-action reports, and situation reports. The timely response to the bombings is attributable to long-term institutionalized planning efforts; multiple platforms established for frequent interorganizational interactions through formal plans, training, and exercises prior to disasters; and an integrated communication system.