Build a shared understanding of emergency, and train interagency scenarios


  • Provide a shared understanding of the emergency behavior, roles, terminology, capabilities, decision-making and other specific processes, before, during and after the emergency to all involved. Liaison officers as ‘translators’ (language, cultures, …) in different decision levels.
  • Standardize competences for specific positions at European Level, and its certification processes.
  • Once the standard roles of different actors have been trained and drilled, organize joint exercises where the focus is on decision-making, coordination and interactions between agents. Train on overlapped competences, and limits of competences.
  • Train values such as empathy, adaptability, proactivity, collaboration and leadership, and promote trust building.
  • Map existing networks and stakeholders at national, regional and local level.
  • Engage network of experts on in-site based activities.

#EuropanSharingKnowledgePlatforms #EuropeanDisasterManagementSchools  #scales #buildingmanager #CommonInteragencyTraining #skilledtrainners #jointtraining


Possible Solutions


Name Provider

(company, project, organization)

Short description
C2-Sense project (Interoperability Profiles for Command/Control Systems and Sensor Systems in Emergency Management)


C2-SENSE project’s main objective is to develop a profile based Emergency Interoperability Framework by the use of existing standards and semantically enriched Web services to expose the functionalities of C2 Systems, Sensor Systems and other emergency/crisis management systems.


Collaborative Disciplines, Collaborative Technologies Amaye, Alexis; Neville, Karen; Pope, Andrew (2015) Proceedings of 9th European Conference on Is Management and Evaluation (Ecime 2015), 11–20 Emergency management (EM) is a dynamic, interdisciplinary research domain evolving from a practitioner led discipline focused on managing disasters. The complexity of multi-agency coordination, interoperability of divergent systems and processes, and emphasis on required functional capabilities highlights unique issues and challenges within the discipline. Emergency Management Information Systems (EMIS) was coined to describe specialized information and communication technologies, systems and tools used to support the unique needs of responders, decision makers and ultimately communities impacted by disasters since the late 1960s. Though the evolution of EM and EMIS have occurred in tandem, as research domains, both disciplines are impacted by developing standards and the lack of common terminology and a prevailing model or theory to inform theory, practice, and research. The goal of this primer is to examine the dimensions of the domain in existing literature, define concepts and functional capabilities that join the domain, categorize the systems and tools which support the domain, and propose a framework for a broader literature review of these unique disciplines. Application of a socio-technological view of EMIS hinges on a better understanding of the concepts and dimensions which frame EM research and practice. The key to EMIS success lies not only in the understanding of the dimensions, needs, and challenges of EM to ensure the information and communication solutions are fit for purpose, but also to meet the needs of intended end users. This paper has been developed to present a discussion of concepts that frame the focus on capabilities and structures necessary to support EM to better align system development and evaluation for this dynamic and constantly evolving domain in practice.
Virtual training Bertram, Johanna; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Cress, Ulrike (2015): Computers in Human Behavior, 43, 284–292 Team training seems to be crucial for the success of teams such as those in emergency services, the police or fire fighting. To carry out an operation successfully, intense training for complex collaborative tasks needs to be provided for all team members. In our study we applied a virtual training environment to train police personnel for complex collaborative tasks. The virtual training group was compared to a group with standard training and to a control group. The data show that the standard training resulted in more motivation, perceived value of the training and knowledge after the training session than virtual training. But with regard to the learning transfer measured by the behaviour in a real and complex situation, the virtual training was as good as the standard training. Both outperformed the control group. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Integration between Telecommunication, Navigation and Earth Observation Systems for Crisis Response Management Cote, Judith; Chuberre, Nicolas; d’Armagnac, Bertrand; del Monte, Luca; Mathieu, Charlotte (2012): 6th Advanced Satellite Multimedia Systems Conference (Asms) and 12th Signal Processing for Space Communications Workshop (Spsc), 147–151 With an increasingly capable and complex European Security landscape, Space technologies are playing a vital role in crisis response both within Europe and across the globe. In this domain, Europe is developing capabilities to address many useful space technology applications that are directly applicable to both civilian and security needs. As expressed by various actors in the civil security and defense domains, there is a need for operational and sustainable space-based services that would be more responsive, integrated and under European control (i.e. based on European assets) through the combination of services provided by the different domains of space applications such as Earth observation, telecommunications and navigation. In the frame of the “European Integrated Space Architectures for Crisis Response” study led by Thales Alenia Space (TAS), and funded and supported by ESA, several crisis scenarios have been thoroughly analyzed in order to identify the needs of all the crisis response stakeholders in terms of telecommunication, observation and navigation services. A trade-off has been carried out on existing and planned space and non space assets to fulfill the mission requirements and led to identify some gaps which can be removed by innovative space assets. From an aggregation of existing and planned assets operating with various standards, spectrum and non interoperable terminals and networks that will be available in 2015, the study led to propose a reduced set of new space assets to fulfill the crisis response requirements that could not be addressed by non space assets only. Through an integrated and harmonized approach, the infrastructure foreseen at the 2025 time horizon will make it possible to improve the management of natural disasters, piracy or oil-spills wherever it may occur and efficiently support the European security policy and the external action service for the benefit of all member states at optimized overall cost. This article presents the main findings of the study. In particular, it discusses the main mission requirements that new assets dedicated to crisis management will have to fulfill
OASIS Tactical Situation Object A route to interoperability Henriques, Fedra; Rego, Delfim (2008): Sigdoc’08: Proceedings of the 26th Acm International Conference on Design of Communication, 269–270 In this document we describe the adoption of a common European standardised interchange format (Tactical Situation Object TSO), one of the cornerstones of the OASIS Project (Open Advanced System for Disaster and Emergency Management) enabling a minimum level of interoperability between civil protection agencies using heterogeneous systems during operations by sharing a timely and comprehensive operating picture.
Interoperable semantic access control for highly dynamic coalitions Koshutanski, Hristo; Mana, Antonio (2010): Security and Communication Networks, 3(6), 565–594 A coalition consists of independent organizations that share resources and skills to achieve significant mission objectives. Dynamic Coalition (DC) formations occur in response to some market demands, business requests, or disaster responses, to name a few. Partners forming a coalition are automatically selected given some business criteria and become active participants from the time the coalition is formed. Highly dynamic coalitions (HDCs) form a sub class of dynamic coalitions where the coalition formation and operation are strictly bound by time in order to provide a prompt reaction to some events. This type of dynamism poses the necessity of underlying security models and technologies allowing for automated coalition formation and operation. This paper presents a platform-driven approach to HDCs. It first defines a life cycle inherent to HDC formations, and then presents a platform-driven access control model that takes advantage of semantics of partners’ requirements to provide interoperable access control to resources shared in a coalition. Coalition partners can achieve a high level of service interoperation by enhancing their access control requirements with semantics of usage, and interlinking their semantics using class relations based on standard ontology. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Design and Function of the European Forest Fire Information System McInerney, Daniel; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Corti, Paolo; Whitmore, Ceri; Giovando, Cristiano; Camia, Andrea (2013): Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 79(10), 965–973 The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) is a modular decision support system that monitors forest fires at a continental scale. It delivers real-time, multi-dimensional data on forest fires to civil protection and fire fighting services in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle-East. Since its inception in 2001, EFFIS has evolved into the central reference point for pan-European forest and wildfire information, and this paper describes and current applications demonstrate the state-of-the-art fire information systems that provide data to civil protection authorities across Europe. The objective of EFFIS is to provide accurate data in order to assess and mitigate the impacts of wildfire events on society and the environment. Furthermore, EFFIS provides real-time information on critical fires, supporting decision making for international collaboration on forest fire fighting activities. Its goal is to make these data readily available using Web-based standards and protocols.
Gamification for Data Gathering in Emergency Response Exercises Meesters, Kenny; Ruhe, Aaron; Soetanto, Marvin (2015): Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Games Based Learning    (Ecgbl 2015), 672–679 Our paper describes how gamification can be implemented in an emergency response exercise. In particular, we focus on the potential of gamification to support self-evaluation processes through the automated gathering of data about the participants’ performance. Disaster-exercises are typically constructed around a scenario posing more or less known challenges to the participants, with the performance often determined only by observation. While these observations certainly have a value in their own right, since participants are deeply engaged and immersed in such exercises (e.g. detailed descriptions of events, immediate interpretation of data, and placing results in context) they also have their limitations. Especially in regards to learning in emergency response exercises we encounter limitations due to the observer’s cognitive limitations and the (limited) type of data that is being gathered. While external observations may be sufficient for evaluation the execution of tasks according to pre-determined standards, less well defined and complex processes, such as decision making processes, are more difficult to evaluate. Such processes are for example influenced by cognitive biases, group dynamics and even political motives. Finally, on a more practical level, the dependence on external observers adds an additional requirement to already resource-intense disaster exercises, especially considering the required expertise. We aim to demonstrate the potential of gamification in disaster exercises to support the structured collection of data regarding the performance of the participants. This data would support self-evaluation, in turn reducing the dependence on external observers and provide additional insights. First we derive different constructs from the various learning objectives associated with complex tasks such as group decision making, coordination and building situational awareness. Next we translate these constructs in quantifiable measurements enabling data collection. Finally, we implement these measurements in gamification elements in a disaster exercise game. The resulting data is presented to the participants enabling them to reflect on their own performance as a team reducing the dependence on external observers. This concept has been explored, developed and studied in an experimental setting. Ten volunteers were involved in the study, participating in a simulated emergency response exercise at the University of Amsterdam. In this test the focus of the exercise and the implemented gamifications elements were the decision making process, information management and coordination efforts. For validation purposes, the participants were divided over three different groups each given the same tasks and challenges. Additional several experts in disaster exercises and decision making were present to compare the outcome of the groups’ self-evaluations with their notes as ‘traditional’ observers. Our results indicate that gamification can be a strong tool to gather quantitative data concerning the learning goals of the exercise that in turn helps participants to evaluate their own performance for complex tasks during disaster responses. Participants were to a large extend able to indicate the same lessons as the observers. Demonstrating that the collected data supported the participants to reflect on their performance and identify improvements themselves. Moreover, participants also indicated additional lessons learned which were not noted by the observers.
Dynamic Knowledge Management Toolkit Nada, Nader; Kholief, Mohamed; Ghanem, M.; Bakry, W. (2008): Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management & Organisational Learning, 363–367 An important aspect of knowledge management is the implementation of methods to share the unstructured knowledge of expert practitioners within an organization. The-existence of unstructured and dynamic knowledge represents a challenge to experts due to the dynamic and non-sequential nature of such knowledge. In order to make such knowledge sharable, it is necessary to have both an effective elicitation method and a useful representation toolkit. In this paper we describe a Dynamic Knowledge Toolkit (DKT) that is used in knowledge elicitation and representation based upon Knowledge maps. Knowledge Maps content is different from the more general information in typical reference material and that is organized quite differently than standard textbook knowledge or mainstream hypermedia learning systems. These knowledge models tend to be large and complex with interwoven themes and rich interconnections of the concepts based on the expert’s highly articulated mental model of the domain. Knowledge Maps have been used in all facets of education, training and business. With the fundamental goal of fostering learning and knowledge sharing they have been shown to be an effective tool for displaying prior knowledge, summarizing, planning, scaffolding for understanding, consolidating experiences, improving affective conditions for critical thinking, decision making, supporting cooperation and collaboration, and organizing unstructured knowledge content. We describe the use of the toolkit in a case study on the capture and representation of local weather forecasting knowledge. We also show how Knowledge maps ran be used to support activities such as the preservation of institutional memory, the “recovery” of expertise that might reside in less accessible forms such as archived documents, for performance support, and for other knowledge-intensive pursuits such as weather forecasting or crisis management.
Establishing cross-border co-operation between professional organizations Princen, Sebastiaan; Geuijen, Karin; Candel, Jeroen; Folgerts, Oddy; Hooijer, Ragna (2016): European Urban and Regional Studies, 23(3), 497–512 This article explores the conditions under which local and regional governments will establish and sustain cross-border co-operation in the fields of police, fire fighting and emergency health services. It argues that understanding this type of cross-border co-operation requires a focus on the way in which professionals define and apply their professional standards in cross-border contexts. Moreover, it requires a focus on individual organizations and professionals working in them, rather than government’ or the state’ as a whole, since cross-border co-operation in these areas typically develops as a result of disparate and unconnected initiatives taken by governmental actors in a given border region. Based on four studies of cross-border co-operation in Dutch border regions, we argue that differences in legal, organizational and cultural backgrounds between the participating countries can be and are overcome by street-level professionals and their organizations, who act as regionauts’ in exploring opportunities for cross-border co-operation. In this type of bottom-up’ cross-border co-operation, motivation among participants is the key to establishing co-operation, and solutions to differences between work routines will be developed along the way. As a result, the establishment of cross-border co-operation often is an experimental, pragmatic enterprise, which is greatly affected by local intra- and inter-organizational dynamics. This opens the potential for pragmatic, flexible and creative solutions. Yet, at the same time it also runs the risk of producing unaccountable cross-border arrangements that are insufficiently embedded in legal and professional safeguards against error and abuse.
eEDUCATION and eTRAINING Rehrl, Jochen (2016): Elearning Vision 2020!, Vol I, 11–16 Since 2003, the EU has been conducting missions and operations in the framework of the European Security and Defence Policy. Over the years, the crisis management structures, now located within the European External Action Service, have established well-functioning processes based on lessons learned. One of the recurring conclusions is the lack of training and education. These issues can be solved using eLearning tools, specifically developed for the European Security and Defence College (ESDC), with the same content for every participant. Through the ESDC, a certain standardization process can be guaranteed and the eLearning tools are independent from time and location constraints.
Building a Generic Model for Early Warning Information Systems (EWIS) Saadeldin, Mohamed; Zaher, Hegazy M. (2016): Information Technology: New Generations, 444, 639–648 Different EWSs have been developed for various categories of crises/disasters, which are based on specific models and cater to various decision support needs. There is no general methodology to be followed by organizations that are exposed to risks. Throughout this research, we aim to put a general methodology and set standard rules for risk-prone organizations or sectors that need an early warning system to prevent or at least reduce these risks. This research suggests a generic EWIS model that can be adapted to the dynamic needs of the field of crisis management. The generic model is made up of a series of sub-models, each of which consists of a set of processes that are connected together based on their functions. The generic model can be used – with some modifications-in any type of EWIS. The information systems that uses the proposed generic model will provide decision makers, governments and people with alerts to prevent or at least reduce the risks of crises and disasters.
WEB SERVICES AND INFORMATION SUPPORT DURING EMERGENCIES Spulak, Pavel (2012): 4th International Conference on Cartography and Gis, Vol. 2, 39–46 The management of emergencies is hardly ever imaginable without proper information support. This information support must be consistent across all phases of emergencies, during the planning and preparation phase, during life saving and rescue operation and also during the recovery phase. The web services enable uniform a standardized publishing of the data and algorithms for various applications. Owing to this fact, the data and algorithms published through the web services are available via standard interface for all computer applications regardless on which phase of the emergencies they are focused. The web services can be also easily joined together to form large information systems. This contribution demonstrates the use of Python web application framework Django as a tool for publication of data and algorithms in the form of web services. As a simple demonstration of the Django and web services capability was chosen the analysis of the quadratic equation. The more sophisticated example, showing the web services capability in the consequence with emergencies, is illustrated with web service providing endangered areas according to the Emergency Response Guidebook in the connection with hazardous material release.
CARTOGRAPHIC PRINCIPLES FOR STANDARDIZED CARTOGRAPHIC VISUALIZATION FOR CRISIS MANAGEMENT COMMUNITY Stachon, Zdenek; Kubicek, Petr; Stampach, Radim; Herman, Lukas; Russnak, Jan; Konecny, Milan (2016): 6th International Conference on Cartography and Gis, Vols 1 and 2, 781–788 In the Czech Republic, Integrated Rescue System (IRS) is coordinated by regional emergency centres. Operators of these centres use the geographic information system for spatial analysis and visualization of the situation. It is obvious that the used cartographic visualization (colours, cartographic signs, etc.) should be unified in the whole Czech Republic to assure effective communication and organisation of emergency response – especially in a case of large disaster where IRS units from several regions need to be coordinated. The project “Geoinformatics as an instrument to support integrated emergency and rescue operations of state” aimed to develop a methodology of unified cartographic symbology for IRS. It consists of the recommended basic principles for the construction and definition of a symbol set, scaling range and standardized description of individual symbols to be used for maps in the analogue and digital forms. The presented paper describes the basics of the aforementioned methodology and experience retrieved during the IRS practice ZONA 2015, where the proposed cartographic visualization rules were used.
EXPERIMENT FOR DETERMINATION OF MAP GRAPHICS SEGMENT STANDARD FOR HANDHELD CRISIS MAPS MANAGEMENT Zupan, Robert; Sruk, Dalibor; Franges, Stanislav (2012): Tehnicki Vjesnik-Technical Gazette, 19(4), 917–921 This paper describes a study of map symbols to display on maps that are in the service of making decisions and solving problems in crisis situations, as well as providing support to residents and experts on crisis management in times of decision making, before and during the crisis. For practical reasons maps are shown on small handheld screens. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire, followed by interviewing. The study involves experts in crisis situations, cartographers, students and other participants (meaning all those who accessed and filled in the online survey, and who do not belong to any of the categories mentioned). The survey covers cartographic symbols representing various crisis situations. The symbols were chosen for the questionnaire for some crisis situations, i.e. for a term that describes them. Their usability was then tested on the maps displayed on a PDA by the method of interviewing. This is the first attempt in Croatia for the standardization of cartographic symbols and their use in emergency maps adapted to new technologies and media to display and use mobile maps.